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Overview

buncheong
Buncheong Celadon Thin Film Tendril Pattern
Bottle (National Treasure No.1067)
Possessed by National Museum of Korea.
It was around BC 6,000 that earthenware was born fir the first time in Korea.
It was around BC 6,000 that earthenware was born fir the first time in Korea.
Korean earthenware of that time are Comb-pattern earthenware and belong to the cultural territory of engraving pattern earthenware: this culture was established in northern Siberia and was distributed to the East including Manchuria and Korean Peninsula and to the West including Scandinavian Peninsula and north Germany.
Although there was some influence of Chinese ceramics in the Bronze Age (BC 1000) also, regular culture was started since the transmission of re-glazing ceramic technique of The Age of Civil War.
With transmission of new technique, production of deoxidizing hard earthenware with high burning was possible and the share of ceramic art in daily lives gradually exceeded other industrial arts using other materials and became diverse.

In case of our country, entrance into porcelain culture from earthenware culture was made when Celadon production technique was transmitted through active trade between Shilla Country and Country early in 9th Century.

And then, Celadon that was started to produce since Unified Shilla Age developed after entering Koryo Age in 12th Century and the most beautiful, our own creative ceramic was produced with reputation that "Koryo's Celadon is the best in the world." Celadon that received the influence of Koryo Age that was a Buddhism country focused on aristocracy remained many master pieces with its magnificence and refinement and was gradually disappeared from the peak in late in Koryo Age.

Celadon was changed according to the requirements of the ages through 14th and 15th Centuries and converted into a specific shape of porcelain.
Buncheong Celadon was developed with succession of production technique and tradition of celadon, thus, is similar with celadon in terms of soil and glaze, however, shape and decoration were different from celadon: if celadon had delicate shapes with aristocratic preference, Buncheong Celadon has the shapes with the preference of common folks.
Buncheong Celadon was transmitted to Japan through Japanese Invasion of Korea in 16th Century and became the motivation of ceramic development in Japan. Japan was at the level that they could produce not porcelain but earthenware at that time but production of ceramics became possible because they took such many potters as they called the war 'Ceramic War' and let them produce ceramics. Highlight of Buncheong Celadon had to be closed because many ovens of the country was broken during Japanese Invasion of Korea and many potters were taken to Japan.

White porcelain, which represents Choseon Age, was produced with Kaolin with high Daehwado. Although some of white porcelain was already being produced early in Koryo Age, it was highly popular in Choseon Age and is positioned at the center of ceramic art until current age.
White porcelain of Choseon adopted simple and elegant beauty of molding, avoiding various colors or luxury decorations, with the principle of economy as the standard of molding.
But Choseon white porcelain gradually declined with inflow of industrial ceramics of Japan and capitalism countries that equipped with industrialized production environment through civilization age and was completely disappeared in Japanese Imperialism Age.

Western industrial ceramics was initiated with inflow of Japanese industrial capital and technique in Japanese Forced Occupation Age and, according to the preference classicalism by Japanese, ceramics were produced in succession styles of Koryo Celadon, Choseon Buncheong Celadon, and white porcelain.

Korean ceramic art had no way but to receive the influence of difficulty of the age, like other industrial arts, since liberation.
Ceramics as traditional industrial art was moved out of interested area with narrow connection of its stem through several potters only and, furthermore, traditional production technique was not transmitted.
Upon entering of Korean economy into industrial stage, private companies started production of western style ceramics and ceramics were used for practical purposes.

With elevated interest in traditional industrial art since late in 1970's, social interest in traditional ceramic art was increased and, with production of professionals with professional education, new shape of ceramic art started development with challenge of modernized sense.
In addition, efforts to revive the cut stem of traditional ceramic art are continuously made.